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Esophageal cancer is currently the eighth most common cancer, and the sixth leading cause of death from cancer in the world due to its highly aggressive nature. Better prognosis can be achieved with early diagnosis in early stages of the disease. The increasing incidence rate and the distribution of esophageal cancer varies with tumor type location and with geographical area. Multiple factors like ethnicity, genetic factors, and lifestyle play a role. Currently, Barrett’s esophagus is still the only known precursor. Due to its natural history, esophageal cancer is commonly diagnosed in more advanced stages. In tumors confined to the mucosa, local endoscopic treatment is considered curative whereas when the tumor invades the submucosa, surgical esophagectomy is the current standard treatment. In case of locally advanced disease, neoadjuvant chemo or chemo-radio therapy is now considered the gold standard treatment. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has reduced morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy without compromising the oncological outcomes. In the chapter, the McKeown mini-invasive esophagectomy technique is described.
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