Manuscripts should be written in English using size 12 Roman font. The overall margin should be 2 cm (0.787 inches) with double space between lines. The manuscript should be submitted as a single file Microsoft Word document, with tables and figures inserted after the references. High resolution TIFF images (minimum 300 dpi) should be submitted separately. The page numbers should be included at the bottom right of the document. Arrange the manuscript in the following order.

Title page

Title, Author(s), affiliation of the author(s), email of all authors and contact details of the corresponding author with his or her academic title. 


No more than 200 words, single paragraph without any references. The abstract should be written in such a way that it conveys the entire message of the chapter. Below the abstract include a short title (no more than 50 characters including space) and five key words in alphabetic order, each separated by semicolon. 


Introduction, contents under various sub headings (do not number the headings), conclusion, conflict of interest, acknowledgements, and copyright and permission statement. Word limit of the body, excluding references, is between 4000 and 7000.  

Conflict of interest

Declare if you have any conflict of interests that are related to the article. The ICMJE guidelines state that a conflict of interest exists when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patients' welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain). Anything that could be perceived as a conflict of interest should be declared. Some examples are: financial relationships (such as employment, consultancies, stock ownership or options, honoraria, patents, and paid expert testimony), personal relationships or rivalries, academic competition, and intellectual beliefs. 

If there are no conflicts of interest then the author should enter “The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest with respect to research, authorship and/or publication of this article".


Acknowledge your colleagues and sources of funding that made this research possible. 

Copyright and permission statement

Please include the following statement:

I/We confirm that the materials included in this chapter do not violate copyright laws. Where relevant, appropriate permissions have been obtained from the original copyright holder(s). All original sources have been appropriately acknowledged and/or referenced.


Use Vancouver style. References should be cited in numerical order (in parentheses) in the text and listed in the same numerical order at the end of the manuscript. There are no limits for the number of references. If you use any software to generate references, manually verify that they are accurate and adhere to the requirements. Examples are given below (adapted from Monash University). The best way to ensure accuracy is to download from PubMed.

For journal articles with 1-6 authors, list all authors. 

Format: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article.  Abbreviated title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon DD;volume  number(issue number):page numbers.  

Example: Courthod G, Tucci M, Di Maio M, Scagliotti GV. Papillary renal cell  carcinoma: A review of the current therapeutic landscape. Crit Rev Oncol  Hematol. 2015 Oct;96(1):100-12.  

For journal articles with more than 6 authors, add et al. after the sixth author.  

Format: Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD, Author EE, Author FF,  et al . Title of article. Abbreviated title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon  DD;volume number(issue number):page numbers.  

Example: Alves MR, Carneiro FC, Lavorato-Rocha AM, da Costa WH, da Cunha  IW, de Cássio Zequi S, et al. Mutational status of VHL gene and its clinical  importance in renal clear cell carcinoma. Virchows Arch. 2014 Sep;465(3):321-  30.  


Format: Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication:  Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination.   

Example: Carlson BM. Human embryology and developmental biology. 4th ed.  St. Louis: Mosby; 2009. 541 p.  

Chapter in a book  

Format: Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication:  Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page  numbers of chapter].  

Example: Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility.  7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2005. Chapter 29,  Endometriosis; p. 1103-33. 

Edited Book 

Format: Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first].  Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination.  

Example: O'Campo P, Dunn JR, editors. Rethinking social epidemiology:  towards a science of change. Dordrecht: Springer; 2012. 348 p.  

Chapter in an edited book 

Format: Author AA, Author BB. Title of chapter. In: Editor AA, Editor BB,  editors. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of  publication. p. [page numbers of chapter]. 

Example: Blaxter PS, Farnsworth TP. Social health and class inequalities. In:  Carter C, Peel JR, editors. Equalities and inequalities in health. 2nd ed.  London: Academic Press; 1976. p. 165-78.   

Figures and figure legends

Figures should be inserted after the references. All illustrations are referred to as "Figures" and must be numbered consecutively, for example (Figure 1, Figure 2 etc). The maximum number of figures allowed is three, and all of them can be in colour. Figures should be high-resolution TIFF images (minimum 300 dpi). After creating the images as high resolution TIFF images, use the 'insert picture' function of the Microsoft Word to insert figures after the references. Provide figure legends immediately below each figure. Also, high-resolution TIFF images should be submitted separately.


All tables should be created with the 'insert table' function of Microsoft Word. When creating tables, the page margins should be set at 3.5 cm (1.37 inches) at the top and bottom, and 2 cm (0.75 inches) at left and right. A table can occupy multiple pages in length, but should not exceed the above margins. The tables should be cited in numerical order in the text (Table 1, Table 2 etc). Each table should have a table number and a descriptive title above the table. Explanations for abbreviations and levels of significance, if relevant, should be given at the bottom of the table as letters in superscript (for example a, b, c etc), not as symbols (for example @, # etc.). 


Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressure should be in millimeters of mercury (adapted from ICMJE).

Abbreviations and Symbols

Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement (adapted from ICMJE).