The Anatomy of the Hippocampus
Main Article Content
The hippocampal formation is responsible for memory processing, learning, spatial navigation, and emotions. It includes the indusium griseum, longitudinal striae, gyrus fasciolaris, hippocampus proper (cornu ammonis, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) and part of the uncus. The hippocampus has the archipallial cortex and is formed by the infoldings of the dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis and subiculum. The dentate gyrus is a narrow crenated strip of grey matter. The dentate gyrus consists of three layers, from the outside in: the molecular layer, granular layer, and polymorphic layer. The granular neurons receive input from the parahippocampal gyrus (entorhinal cortex) via the perforant pathway. The granular neurons send mossy fibers to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells present in the cornu ammonis. The axons of hippocampal pyramidal cells form a sheet of white fibers known as the alveus which continues as fimbria and fornix. The fornix projects into the septal area. From the septal area few fibers synapse into the cingulate gyrus which returns to the hippocampus. The neuronal intrinsic circuit, known as the Papez circuit of the hippocampus, plays a crucial role in the memory processing.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright of individual chapters belongs to the respective authors. The authors grant unrestricted publishing and distribution rights to the publisher. The electronic versions of the chapters are published under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0). Users are allowed to share and adapt the chapters for any non-commercial purposes as long as the authors and the publisher are explicitly identified and properly acknowledged as the original source. The books in their entirety are subject to copyright by the publisher. The reproduction, modification, republication and display of the books in their entirety, in any form, by anyone, for commercial purposes are strictly prohibited without the written consent of the publisher.