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Recent studies have highlighted the role of focal or total ischemia in the development of post-ischemic brain neurodegeneration. However, despite extensive research, the exact mechanism(s) by which ischemia contributes to brain neurodegeneration remains unclear. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of post-ischemic neurodegeneration of the brain may allow us to develop effective therapies for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This chapter summarizes the latest research into post-ischemic signaling associated with the development of post-ischemic brain neurodegeneration with Alzheimer's disease-type neuropathology and dementia. We focus mainly on the genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which play an important role in the development of post-ischemic brain neurodegeneration. Also, the potential role of ischemic factors as new therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease is discussed.
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