The Anatomy of the Cerebral Cortex

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Pradip Chauhan, MBBS, MS, CRM
Ashish Rathawa, MBBS, MS
Kinjal Jethwa, MBBS, MS
Simmi Mehra, MBBS, MS


The cerebral hemisphere consists of five lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and limbic lobe. Each cerebral hemisphere shows superomedial, inferior, and medial surfaces separated by superomedial, inferomedial, and inferolateral borders. The superolateral surface shows the central sulcus that separates the pre-central and post-central gyri. The parietal lobe is divided by the interparietal sulcus into supra-parietal and infra-parietal lobes. The occipital lobe contains the primary visual area surrounded by peristriate and parastriate areas. The temporal lobe is divided into superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri. The superior surface of the superior temporal gyrus is occupied by the primary and secondary speech areas. The medial surface shows C-shaped corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, cuneus, precuneus, cingulate sulcus and paracentral lobule. The orbital part of the inferior surface shows H-shaped orbital sulcus, olfactory sulcus, and olfactory gyrus. Broca’s motor speech area is present in the dominant hemisphere at the inferior frontal gyrus. Wernicke’s speech area is present in supramarginal and angular gyri. The cerebral hemisphere is mainly supplied by anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries. Understanding the anatomy of the cerebral cortex is critical to recognize the site of lesion in cerebral ischemia.


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Chapter 1