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Gliomas used to be classified mainly based on histopathological criteria. In 2016, the Word Health Organization introduced a new classification system incorporating the molecular profile of gliomas. This has prompted research on the utility of molecular signature of gliomas to predict prognosis and response to therapy. While experimental data appear to be promising, the clinical use of molecular markers to predict prognosis and drive individual treatments is still a challenge. This chapter presents an overview of the major genes and markers associated with the characterization and development of gliomas, and the potential of these molecular markers in clinical decision-making. The current challenges and future directions are discussed.
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