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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory and language disorders, and the accumulation of amyloid-β and tau protein in the brain has been considered a feature of AD. The accumulation of amyloid-β has been reported to be observed 15 to 20 years before the onset by image analysis-based diagnostic methods. In addition, it has been reported that AD is associated with various diseases such as type 2 diabetes, periodontal disease, and obesity. It is conceivable that these diseases trigger the onset of AD. The human gut and brain form a network called “brain–gut–microbiota axis,” and it is suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in brain diseases. Recently, the microbiota has also been reported to be involved in diseases such as depression and Parkinson’s disease, and so attention is being paid to the relationship between AD and gut microbiota. This chapter outlines the relationship between AD and the human microbiome.
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