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Ophthalmology is a suitable field for telehealth integration given technology’s advancement in capturing images and transmitting data. Since the 19th century, with the first photograph of a retina in a living human, the utilization of technology in delivering remote eye care, known as teleophthalmology, has evolved rapidly with smartphones, 5th generation wireless communication, and artificial intelligence. These widespread applications have been used both asynchronously (store-and-forward) and synchronously (real-time) in the screening, diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, anterior segment and oculoplastic diseases, neuro-ophthalmic disorders, and pediatric ocular diseases including retinopathy of prematurity. With demonstrated clinical efficacy, patient satisfaction, and ongoing advances, telehealth in ophthalmology has strong potential in improving access to eye screenings and treatments as well as expanding the geographic coverage of eye care globally.
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