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Stanislaw J. Czuczwar, MD, PHD

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder and around 65 million people worldwide are affected. Although antiepileptic drugs (also known as antiseizure drugs) provide sufficient control of seizures in circa 70% of patients with epilepsy, the remaining 30% are resistant to monotherapy. Combinations of antiepileptic drugs may improve seizure control in some patients, but still a significant proportion of patients suffer from drug-resistant seizures. There are numerous efforts aimed at improving treatment outcomes. For instance, novel therapeutic targets are being searched based on neurobiological mechanisms involved in drug-resistant seizures. Also, many studies are devoted to pathophysiology of various genetic epilepsies. Some antiepileptic drugs exert their protective effects via potentiation of GABA-mediated inhibition or suppression of glutamate-induced excitatory events. Other drugs may target ion channels for Na+, Ca2+ or K+. Novel targets for antiepileptic drugs have been emerging, for instance TGF-β, m-TOR signaling, inflammatory pathways, or multidrug efflux transporters. Apart from pharmacological treatment, alternative methods for the management of epilepsy are in use––ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation, or deep brain stimulation. Considering epileptogenesis as a process responsible for converting normal brain into epileptic brain, an intriguing therapeutic possibility arises. CONTINUE READING…..


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