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Despite extensive research efforts in prostate cancer for the last several decades, the disease remains a leading cause of cancer death in men in the developed world. A typical feature of prostate cancer initiation and progression is the landscape of genetic alterations, which changes the expression patterns of numerous molecules in prostate epithelial cells, where the disease originates. These aberrantly expressed proteins are tumor-associated antigens. Their uniqueness in tumors offers an avenue not only in advancing our understanding of prostate cancer but also in the search for better diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Mucin 1 is one of the most well-characterized tumor-associated antigens. The protein is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated following prostate cancer development, and influences certain disease factors including disease initiation, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. Mucin 1 possesses value as a biomarker in predicting prostate cancer prognosis and has been studied as a therapeutic target. This chapter provides an overview of the impact of Mucin 1 on prostate cancer and its clinical values.
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