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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system which is accompanied by demyelination of the nerves, axonal loss, and disability. Currently, no definitive treatment is recognized for MS. Stem-cell therapy for MS has shown promising results and has attracted attention as an alternative therapeutic option. Various stem cell sources such as mesenchymal, embryonic, and neural have been identified. This chapter gives an overview of the advances made in our understanding of these stem cells under two broad categories: exogenous and endogenous. Stem-cell therapy in MS and the substantial literature regarding their therapeutic potential for MS are discussed. Much of the promising data are still in experimental stage, and further clinical trials are needed to rigorously evaluate the safety, validity, and feasibility of these stem cells for the treatment of MS.
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