The Etiology of Bladder Cancer

Main Article Content

Keng Ng, MBBS, PhD, FRCS


Urothelial cancer of the bladder, known as bladder cancer, is one of the most common cancers in the world. The incidence is rising steadily particularly in developed nations where tobacco smoking is prevalent. With the development of accessible diagnostic modalities, enhanced surgical techniques, and improvement in novel immunotherapy regimes, overall survival rates are improving. Better understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of bladder cancer will lead to improved preventative strategies particularly modifiable risk factors like smoking.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Chapter 3