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Renal cell carcinoma accounts for most malignant renal cancers, with clear cell as the most common subtype. Nowadays, the typical presentation of loin pain, frank hematuria, and palpable mass of renal cell carcinoma are seen less frequently. The advancements in medical imaging, in particular abdominal imaging, have significantly increased the number of small renal masses detected incidentally. Urothelium lining of upper urinary tract starts from the calyces and run the entire length of the ureter till the vesico-ureteric junction. Urothelial carcinoma is the malignancy of this urothelium tract. Established risk factors for renal cell carcinoma, and to some extent to upper tract urothelial carcinoma, include male gender, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and end stage renal diseases. This chapter provides an overview of the etiology of renal cell carcinoma and upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
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