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The complete list is available <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/about/editorialTeam" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a>.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <center> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/1-harvard-130.jpg" alt="Harvard" width="130" height="39" hspace="10px"><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/mgh-logo-130.jpg" alt="MGH" width="130" height="27" hspace="10px"><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/nyu-130.jpg" alt="NYU" width="130" height="50" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/KU_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"></p> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/cambridge-130.jpg" alt="Cambridge" width="130" height="36" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/PennState_1304.jpg" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/UZ_Leuven_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/Princess_Maxima_1302.jpg" hspace="10px"></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/Fox_Chase_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/Case_Western_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/Cleveland_Medical_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/Curtin_1302.jpg" hspace="10px"></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/UWA_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/Glasgow_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/Highlands_1301.jpg" hspace="10px"></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/cmorais/UDA_90.jpg" hspace="10px"></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </center> en-US <p>Copyright of individual chapters belongs to the respective authors. The authors grant unrestricted publishing and distribution rights to the publisher. The electronic versions of the chapters are published under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC 4.0</a>). Users are allowed to share and adapt the chapters for any non-commercial purposes as long as the authors and the publisher are explicitly identified and properly acknowledged as the original source. The books in their entirety are subject to copyright by the publisher. The reproduction, modification, republication and display of the books in their entirety, in any form, by anyone, for commercial purposes are strictly prohibited without the written consent of the publisher.</p> books@exonpublications.com (Joe Alston) admin@exonpublications.com (John McElroy) Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Front Matter https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/333 Copyright (c) 2021 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/333 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Foreword https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/334 <p>Investigating liver tumors in children and adults is a task for the intrepid, undaunted, and naturally curious scientist. As I count myself among those who wade in these treacherous and thoroughly stimulating waters, I understand the value and rare nature of a book that successfully explores both widely established general concepts and new discoveries with ease. <em>Liver Cancer</em> achieves these goals, and I am delighted to be part of the effort to bring it to all of you. Liver tumors are a heterogeneous and complex mix of benign and malignant neoplasms that may arise in the setting of chronic liver injury or due to no prior insult. In children, hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant primary liver tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma is rare. In adults, however, hepatocellular carcinoma is most common and undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma is vanishingly rare. <em>Liver Cancer</em> explores these, and the myriad of other entities in between, with a depth and precision that is highly informative and practical to the modern physician scientist. Descriptions of grossing techniques, histopathologic features, ancillary testing modalities, molecular/genetic abnormalities, imaging characteristics, treatment options, clinical signs/symptoms and surgical approaches are contemporary contributions to this exciting field. <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/334/560">CONTINUE READING.....</a></p> Florette K. Hazard Copyright (c) 2021 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/334 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Preface https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/332 <p>Liver cancers are complex neoplastic diseases with varied etiologies. Despite numerous research programs and clinical trials targeting several molecules in the last 50 years, hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common form of liver cancer, is still difficult to cure, and has become the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in adults. This, at least in part, is due to the rising incidence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases, and excessive alcohol consumption. An adequate knowledge of the disease, including its etiology and pathology, is essential to develop effective therapies. Contributed by some of the leading hepatologists and pathologists in the field, this book is an effort to provide students, basic scientists, clinicians, and pathologists with a comprehensive understanding of the pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of various types of liver cancers. There are nine chapters in the book. Chapter 1 provides a comprehensive review of malignant epithelial tumors of the liver in children and adolescents. Hepatocellular carcinoma, lipid-rich hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and cholangiocellular carcinoma are discussed. <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/332/558">CONTINUE READING.....</a></p> Consolato Sergi Copyright (c) 2021 Consolato Sergi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/332 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Contributors https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/336 <p><strong>ADUCIO L. THIESEN, MD, PHD, MSC, FRCP</strong><br>Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada</p> <p><strong>ANDREAS G. ZORI, MD</strong><br>Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA</p> <p><strong>BRIANNA SHINN, MD</strong><br>Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA</p> <p><strong>CONSOLATO M. SERGI, MD, PHD, MPH, FRCPC, FCAP</strong><br>Departments of Pediatrics, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Stollery Children’s Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada</p> <p><strong>DINA HALEGOUA-DEMARZIO, MD</strong><br>Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA</p> <p><strong>ERIC LACHANCE, MD</strong><br>Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada</p> <p><strong>GARY SMITH, BSC</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>GAVIN LOW, MBCHB, MPHIL, MRCS, FRCR</strong><br>Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada</p> <p><strong>GIDEON UDOH, BSC</strong><br>Marshall Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Marshall University, Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>HIE-WON HANN, MD, FAASLD</strong><br>Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA</p> <p><strong>JACQUELINE A. SANABRIA, BSC</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>JAKE MANDZIUK, MD</strong><br>Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada</p> <p><strong>JINGYANG HUANG, MD</strong><br>Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada</p> <p><strong>JOSEF HAGER, MD, MSC</strong><br>Department of Pediatric Surgery University Hospital of Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria</p> <p><strong>JOSEPH I. SHAPIRO, MD</strong><br>Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>JUAN D. SANABRIA, BSC</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>JUAN R. SANABRIA, MD, MSC, FRCSC, FACS</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>JUSTIN BATEMAN, MD, FRCPC</strong><br>Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada</p> <p><strong>KOMAL SODHI, MD</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>LAURA HENAO CAVIEDES, MSC</strong><br>Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta Hospital and Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada</p> <p><strong>MARLA BEACH, BSC</strong><br>Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Hospital and Stollery Children’s Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada</p> <p><strong>MATHEW SCHADE, MSC</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>MOUMITA BANERJEE, PHD</strong><br>Marshall Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Marshall University, Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>PRADEEP K. RAJAN, MSC, MPHIL, PHD</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>RONIEL CABRERA, MD, MS</strong><br>Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA</p> <p><strong>SANDEEP A. PONNIAH, MD</strong><br>Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA</p> <p><strong>SANDRINE PIERRE, PHD</strong><br>Marshall Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Marshall University, Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> <p><strong>TINA BOORTALARY, MD</strong><br>Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA</p> <p><strong>UTIBE-ABASI UDOH, BSC, MSC, PHD</strong><br>Department of Surgery, Marshall University Joan Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington WV, USA</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/336 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Carcinoma of the Liver in Children and Adolescents https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/250 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Liver cancer, predominantly hepatocellular carcinoma, is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in adults. Although infrequent in children, hepatocellular carcinoma is a terrifying diagnosis. Rising levels of obesity and obesity-associated lipid metabolic reprogramming of hepatocytes are increasing the prevalence of lipid-rich hepatocellular carcinoma in young adults. Most pediatric liver cancers occur in otherwise healthy liver, with some exceptions such as progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, hereditary tyrosinemia, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, and genetic hemochromatosis. In the last decade, although aggressive multidisciplinary treatments including surgical resection and chemotherapy have remarkably improved patient outcomes in terms of decreased recurrence rate and increased overall survival rate, in children with unresectable liver cancer, the 5-year survival rate is still less than 20%. This chapter provides an overview of malignant epithelial tumors of the liver in children and adolescents. Hepatocellular carcinoma, lipid-rich hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, and cholangiocellular carcinoma are discussed.</p> Consolato M. Sergi Copyright (c) 2021 Consolato Sergi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/250 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Adults https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/264 <p>Hepatocellular carcinomas are the most common primary neoplasia of the liver. The global distribution of hepatocellular carcinoma is related to the prevalence of hepatitis C in the population. Other major etiologic factors include alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The majority of cases are discovered when screening patients with either chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, but occasional incidental cases have been reported. Molecular markers and associated gene alterations are a work in progress. Serological markers and radiology are used to detect the disease in high-risk populations, and to monitor response to therapy in the affected patients. Even though radiologic features are specific, tissue diagnosis may be required, particularly for atypical and smaller lesions. Ancillary studies including reticulin stain and immunohistochemistry are important for confirmatory diagnosis. Liver transplantation is curative for hepatocellular carcinoma, but due to limitations in organ availability, palliative care is required, which mostly includes chemoembolization and radio-ablation.</p> Aducio Thiesen Copyright (c) 2021 Aducio Thiesen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/264 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression to Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis-Related Primary Liver Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/260 <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of primary liver cancer and constitutes about 90-95% of all hepatic malignancies. It is the second and fastest-growing cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although there is multiplicity in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma, accumulating evidence shows that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has risen to become the top etiological factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States and other developed nations, mainly because of the metabolic disturbances from obesity, a western epidemic. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease comprises a spectrum of hepatic pathologies, ranging from simple steatosis to its inflammatory form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. With its concomitant increasing liver collagen deposition, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis paves the pathway for hepatocellular carcinoma development, which may occur with or without established cirrhosis. This chapter focuses on the current knowledge related to the epidemiology and cellular mechanisms that underpin the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to malignancy. Furthermore, it gives insight into the diagnosis, treatment options, and future directions for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related tumorigenesis.</p> Utibe-Abasi Udoh, Juan D. Sanabria, Pradeep K. Rajan , Moumita Banerjee, Mathew Schade, Jacqueline A. Sanabria, Gary Smith, Gideon Udoh, Komal Sodhi, Sandrine Pierre, Joseph I. Shapiro, Juan R. Sanabria Copyright (c) 2021 Utibe-Abasi Udoh, Juan D. Sanabria, Pradeep K. Rajan , Moumita Banerjee, Mathew Schade, Jacqueline A. Sanabria, Gary Smith, Gideon Udoh, Komal Sodhi, Sandrine Pierre, Joseph I. Shapiro, Juan R. Sanabria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/260 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Gross Dissection of Liver for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using AJCC Cancer Staging Manual 8th Edition: Anatomical and Practical Considerations https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/329 <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. In cases of liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma, the dissector, whether a pathologist’s assistant, physician, or resident, must have a clear understanding of both the terminology of liver anatomy and the requirements of the corresponding College of American Pathologists Cancer Protocol to properly orient, describe, dissect, and sample the specimen. This chapter provides guidance for the gross dissection procedure for the production of a valuable pathology report, which is of key importance for a patients’ ongoing care.</p> Marla Beach, Laura Henao Caviedes, Consolato M. Sergi Copyright (c) 2021 Marla Beach, Consolato M. Sergi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/329 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation of Liver Tumors https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/302 <p>Radiologic and pathologic features of common and/or critical tumor or tumor-like diagnoses (lesions) of the liver are discussed within. Hepatocellular lesions (focal nodular hyperplasia, hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatoblastoma), biliary lesions (mucinous cystic neoplasm and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma), vascular mesenchymal lesions (cavernous hemangioma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and hepatic angiosarcoma), and metastatic malignancies are the primary focus, although a more comprehensive list of lesions is also provided. Definitions, distributions, gross appearances and microscopic pathological features are introduced first, followed by radiologic correlation. Multiple imaging modalities are explored with an emphasis on those that provide the greatest value for the lesion under evaluation. A common understanding of the features of both diagnostic specialties will allow for high-quality correlation and subsequent high-quality patient care. Representative images highlighting important features are also presented.</p> Eric Lachance, Jake Mandziuk, Consolato M. Sergi, Justin Bateman, Gavin Low Copyright (c) 2021 Eric Lachance, Jake Mandziuk, Consolato M. Sergi, Justin Bateman, Gavin Low https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/302 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Achieving a Cure: The Next Frontier in Hepatitis B Treatment https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/266 <p>Since the discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) by Blumberg et al. in 1965, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of the virus and creating an effective vaccine. In the past two decades, several antiviral therapies have reduced the incidence of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. The nucleos(t)ide analogues have succeeded in decreasing the viral load to undetectable levels but have been unable to eradicate the virus due to the persistence of covalently closed circular DNA in the hepatocyte nucleus. Despite being on successful antiviral therapy for multiple years, patients are still at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, a number of different drug targets have been identified that intervene on the viral replication cycle or host immune system. This chapter discusses the immunopathogenesis of the virus, the effectiveness of nucleos(t)ide analogues, and recent therapeutic developments. In light of robust progress achieved in antiviral therapy, the cure for hepatitis B is likely on the horizon.</p> Tina Boortalary, Brianna Shinn, Dina Halegoua-DeMarzio, Hie-Won Hann Copyright (c) 2021 Tina Boortalary, Dina Halegoua-DeMarzio, Hie-Won Hann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/266 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Locoregional Therapies for Bridging and Downstaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prior to Liver Transplant https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/330 <p>Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a common indication for liver transplantation. To qualify for liver transplantation, the size and number of tumors must be within established criteria. The Milan criteria is the most well-established of these criteria, however there is evidence these criteria can be safely expanded without affecting outcomes. While awaiting liver transplantation, locoregional therapy can be used as bridging therapy to maintain the tumor burden within criteria. Locoregional therapy can also be used to decrease tumor burden within transplant criteria, a process called downstaging. For tumors &lt;3 cm, thermal ablation—most commonly using a radio-frequency probe—is preferred when feasible and offers tumor control approaching that of resection. Larger or multifocal lesions are usually treated with either trans-arterial chemoembolization or yttrium-90 trans-arterial radioembolization. The choice between these two interventions is generally based on institutional preference as neither has demonstrated survival advantage in the transplant population. However, single center trials show longer time to progression, improved downstaging success, and less microvascular invasion in patients treated with trans-arterial radioembolization. More recently stereotactic body radiation therapy has demonstrated efficacy in patients who are not candidates for other locoregional therapy or have progressed despite prior locoregional therapy.</p> Sandeep A. Ponniah, Andreas Zori, Roniel Cabrera Copyright (c) 2021 Sandeep A. Ponniah, Andreas Zori, Roniel Cabrera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/330 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Hepatoblastoma https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/331 <p>Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver cancer in children aged 3 years and younger. The differential diagnosis of this neoplasm is crucial for the proper management. Recent additions to protocols of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology and Children’s Oncology Group have been key in tackling this oncological disease. This chapter provides an overview of the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, incidence, symptoms, and therapeutic considerations of hepatoblastoma. The diagnostic measures necessary from a surgical point of view and the essential operational and technical considerations for the various stages of hepatoblastoma are discussed.</p> Josef Hager, Consolato M. Sergi Copyright (c) 2021 Josef Hager, Consolato M. Sergi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/331 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma of the Liver in Adults https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/269 <p>Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) is an aggressive malignancy that most commonly affects the pediatric age group. This tumor very rarely occurs in adults and, in such instances, can pose a considerable diagnostic challenge for the clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists involved. The clinical presentation is most often non-specific, and the radiology shows a solid and cystic liver mass which has a considerable differential on imaging. Especially in adult patients, UESL is a diagnosis of exclusion meaning that all other diagnostic possibilities must be excluded before the diagnosis of UESL can be confidently made. From a pathology perspective, this means careful examination of the histology along with a comprehensive panel of immunohistochemistry for almost all cases of newly diagnosed UESL. The prognosis of UESL used to be dismal, but with advances in treatment and the introduction of a multimodality approach, there has been considerable progress in improving outcomes and survival for patients with this aggressive tumor. This chapter outlines the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of UESL. An in-depth discussion is undertaken to describe the diagnostic approach and the differential diagnosis for this rare and challenging tumor.</p> Jingyang Huang Copyright (c) 2021 Jingyang Huang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/269 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 Index https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/337 Copyright (c) 2021 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/337 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000 About the Editor https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/338 <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/bchapter/consolato-sergi-150.jpg" alt="Consolato M. Sergi" width="150" height="216"></p> <p>Consolato M. Sergi, MD, PhD, MPH, FRCPC, FCAP, is a full professor of pathology and adjunct professor of pediatrics at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. He is also a consultant for <em>Standards and Guidelines in Carcinogenesis of Chemical Compounds</em>&nbsp;published by the World Health Organization/International Agency on Research on Cancer (WHO/IARC monographs), Lyon, France. His research interests include hepatic tumors, metabolic diseases, cholangiopathies, organ transplantation, and gut/bile microbiome using cell lines, animal models, and clinical samples. He identified the role of apoptosis in ductal plate malformation of the liver, characterized sialidosis, and found two new genes, WDR62, which encodes a centrosome-associated protein (Nat Genet 2010) and OTX2, mutations of which can contribute to dysgnathia (J Med Genet 2012). Professor Sergi has published more than 300 research/review articles and several books and book chapters. He has supervised and mentored many PhD students and clinical fellows. He is also on the editorial boards of several scientific journals.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/338 Tue, 06 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +1000