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The reproduction, modification, republication and display of the books in their entirety, in any form, by anyone, for commercial purposes are strictly prohibited without the written consent of the publisher.</p> books@exonpublications.com (Editor) admin@exonpublications.com (Peter Daniel) Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Front Matter https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.frontmatter Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.frontmatter Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Foreword https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.foreword <p>Urologic cancers are an umbrella term for cancers of the prostate, kidney, bladder, penis, and testis. While cancers of the prostate, testes, and penis are specific to men, kidney cancer and bladder cancer affect both men and women. However, these also have a male-predominance, with men twice as likely to develop kidney and bladder cancer compared to women. The past 20 years have witnessed remarkable advances in the detection and management of urologic cancers. Routine use of advanced imaging modalities for various reasons has increased the detection of some of these cancers at an early stage. Robot-assisted surgery for nephrectomy, prostatectomy, cystectomy, and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have improved surgical outcomes of localized disease. The introduction of targeted therapies since 2006 has revolutionized the management of metastatic kidney cancer. Despite these advances, the five-year survival of patients with advanced renal cancer is still poor, and we need a better understanding of the disease. The book Urologic Cancers provides an up-to date overview of a wide spectrum of topics that comprise epidemiological, pathological, clinical, and biological aspects of urologic cancers. From the epidemiological spectrum, the most recent information on the epidemiology of testicular cancer and penile cancer are presented. <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/661/1134">CONTINUE READING…..</a></p> Stephen Langley, MS, FRCS Copyright (c) 2022 The Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.foreword Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Preface https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.preface <p>Urologic cancers comprise cancers of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testis, and penis. While kidney cancer and bladder cancer affect both men and women, cancers of the prostate, testis and penis are specific to men. Prostate cancer is the fourth common cancer, and the second most cancer diagnosed in men after skin cancer. Urologic cancers are being increasingly diagnosed incidentally, at least in part due to increased use of imaging modalities for various reasons. While novel treatment strategies and management plans introduced in the past two decades have substantially increased patient survival and improved quality of life for localized disease, this has not been the case with metastatic disease highlighting the need for further active research. This book brings together an international team of clinicians and basic scientists to discuss the recent advances in the pathology and management of urologic cancers. The 15 chapters of this book cover a broad array of topics encompassing pathology, management, and potential therapeutic targets of urologic cancers. The first two chapters provide an account of two unique entities, invasive urothelial carcinoma, and papillary urothelial neoplasms. The histologic subtypes, divergent differentiation, and clinical characteristics, and prognostic features are discussed. <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/660/1135">CONTINUE READING…..</a></p> Neil Barber, MBBS, FRCS, Ahmed Ali, MBCHB, MSC, FRCS Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.preface Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Contributors https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.contributors <p><strong>AARON PERECMAN, MD</strong><br>Department of Urology, Lahey Hospital &amp; Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>ADAM WIGGINS, MD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Lahey Hospital &amp; Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>ANDRÉ VIS, MD, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers location Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p> <p><strong>ANDREW CHETWOOD, MBCHB, FRCS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Frimley Park Hospital, Camberley, UK</p> <p><strong>BRIAN LEWIS, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Radiation Oncology, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>BURCU AKMAN, PHD</strong> <br>Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center, Inciralti 35330, Izmir, Turkey</p> <p><strong>HANS VEERMAN, MD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute –Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p> <p><strong>HENK VAN DER POEL, MD, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute –Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p> <p><strong>HOLLY NI RAGHALLAIGH, MBCHB, MD, FRCS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, Frimley Park Hospital, Frimley Surrey, UK</p> <p><strong>JEROEN VAN MOORSELAAR, MD, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers location Boelelaan, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p> <p><strong>JONATHAN XU, MD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Lahey Hospital &amp; Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>KENG NG, MBBS, PHD, FRCS</strong> <br>Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, Frimley Park Hospital, Frimley Surrey, UK</p> <p><strong>KIMBERLY RIEGER-CHRIST, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Lahey Hospital &amp; Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>KRITI MITTAL, MD, MS</strong> <br>Department of Medicine, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA; UMass Memorial Health, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>LILY WHITEHURST, MBBCH, MRCS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, University Hospitals Sussex, Princess Royal Hospital, Haywards Heath, UK</p> <p><strong>LINDA DING, PHD</strong><br>Department of Radiation Oncology, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA; UMass Memorial Health, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>MARAIS HAGENS, MD</strong><br>Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p> <p><strong>MARCUS RUSCETTI, PHD</strong><br>Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>MARYANN BISHOP-JODOIN, MED</strong><br>Department of Radiation Oncology, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>MICHEL WOUTERS, MD, PHD</strong><br>Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p> <p><strong>MICHELLE DOWNES, MD, FRCPC</strong><br>Division of Anatomic Pathology, Precision Diagnostics &amp; Therapeutics Program-Laboratory Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada</p> <p><strong>MING-JIN WANG, DO</strong><br>Department of Medicine, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA; UMass Memorial Health, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>MITCHELL BARNS, MD</strong><br>Department of Urology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Western Australia</p> <p><strong>MITCHELL SOKOLOFF, MD</strong> <br>UMass Memorial Health, Worcester, MA; Department of Urology, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>NEIL BARBER, MBBS, FRCS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Frimley Park Hospital, Camberley, UK</p> <p><strong>PAUL GRAVESTOCK, BMBS, MPHYS, MRCS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK</p> <p><strong>PIM VAN LEEUWEN, MD, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni vanLeeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p> <p><strong>RAJAN VEERATTERAPILLAY, MBBS, FRCS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK</p> <p><strong>RAKESH HEER, BMBS, FRCS, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK; Translational and Clinical Research Institute, NU Cancer, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK</p> <p><strong>SANJNA DAS, BS</strong> <br>Department of Translational Research, Lahey Hospital &amp; Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>SARAH O’NEILL, MBBS, FRACS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Frimley Park Hospital, Camberley, UK</p> <p><strong>SERAP ERKEK ÖZHAN, PHD</strong> <br>Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center, Inciralti 35330, Izmir, Turkey</p> <p><strong>SHAW MATTHEW, MA, BM BCH, MD, FRCS</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear, UK</p> <p><strong>SIMON RJ BOTT, MD, FRCS, FEBU</strong> <br>Department of Urology, Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, Frimley Park Hospital, Frimley Surrey, UK</p> <p><strong>SIMONE GIONA, MD</strong> <br>Urology Department, Frimley Park Hospital, Portsmouth Rd, Frimley, Camberley GU16 7UJ, UK</p> <p><strong>TAO WANG, PHD</strong> <br>Department of Radiation Oncology, UMass Chan Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>THOMAS J. FITZGERALD, MD</strong> <br>Department of Radiation Oncology, UMass Chan Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>THOMAS KALANTZAKOS, BA</strong> <br>Department of Translational Research, Lahey Hospital &amp; Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>TRAVIS SULLIVAN, MS</strong> <br>Department of Translational Research, Lahey Hospital &amp; Medical Center, Burlington, MA, USA</p> <p><strong>YANHONG YU, MD</strong> <br>Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.contributors Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma: Subtypes and Divergent Differentiation https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/invasive-urothelial-carcinoma <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Invasive urothelial carcinoma is the most frequent type of bladder cancer and may occur in pure or classical form or with the presence of variant or subtype histology and/or evidence of divergent morphology such as squamous, glandular, or trophoblastic differentiation. Increasingly, it is recognized that certain subtypes impact patient prognosis and outcome hence the need to correctly recognize and document their presence. Certain subtypes and divergent features correlate with the emerging molecular bladder cancer subtypes, which can also influence patient management decisions. The pathologist therefore plays a crucial role in providing clinically relevant information, mostly derived from hematoxylin and eosin slides, which will guide urologists and oncologists in terms of risk stratification and treatment planning.</p> Michelle Downes, MD, FRCPC Copyright (c) 2022 Michelle Downes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/invasive-urothelial-carcinoma Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Papillary Urothelial Neoplasms: Clinical, Histologic, and Prognostic Features https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/papillary-urothelial-neoplasms <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Primary bladder neoplasms can be divided into two broad categories: flat and papillary lesions. In this chapter, we provide a review of non-invasive papillary urothelial neoplasms of the bladder: urothelial papilloma, inverted urothelial papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), non-invasive low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, and non-invasive high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. The following is discussed for each entity: clinical features, etiology, microscopic description, ancillary tests, molecular alterations, and prognostic factors.</p> Yanhong Yu, MD, Michelle R. Downes, MD, FRCPC Copyright (c) 2022 Yanhong Yu, Michelle R. Downes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/papillary-urothelial-neoplasms Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 The Etiology of Bladder Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/etiology-of-bladder-cancer <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Urothelial cancer of the bladder, known as bladder cancer, is one of the most common cancers in the world. The incidence is rising steadily particularly in developed nations where tobacco smoking is prevalent. With the development of accessible diagnostic modalities, enhanced surgical techniques, and improvement in novel immunotherapy regimes, overall survival rates are improving. Better understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of bladder cancer will lead to improved preventative strategies particularly modifiable risk factors like smoking.</p> Keng Ng, MBBS, PhD, FRCS Copyright (c) 2022 Keng Ng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/etiology-of-bladder-cancer Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 The Role of MicroRNA in the Metastatic Phenotype of Bladder Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/microrna-metastatic-bladder-cancer <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Bladder cancer is among the most common cancers globally, with significant mortality associated with more advanced disease. Early detection and diagnostic accuracy are thus fundamental to the clinical pathway for managing bladder cancer. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding segments of RNA that regulate gene expression and have been implicated in the process of carcinogenesis. Dysregulation and aberrant expression of miRNAs have been shown to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects. A vast number of miRNA, across the entire field of cancer biology, have already been identified and characterized, and many of these have been associated with bladder cancer. These miRNAs have furthered our understanding of the genetic profile of bladder cancer, and ultimately, may be utilized in the detection, prognosis, and treatment of this disease. This chapter focuses on the role of miRNA in the pathogenesis of metastatic bladder cancer and overviews many of the miRNA thought to be associated with bladder cancer.&nbsp; Additionally, this chapter explores the clinical utilities of miRNAs in bladder cancer to serve as biomarkers and guide individualized treatment.</p> Aaron Perecman, MD, Adam Wiggins, MD, Jonathan Xu, MD, Sanjna Das, BS, Thomas Kalantzakos, BA, Travis Sullivan, MS, Kimberly Rieger-Christ, PHD Copyright (c) 2022 The authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/microrna-metastatic-bladder-cancer Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Implications of Chromatin Modifier Mutations in Epigenetic Regulation of Bladder Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/epigenetics-bladder-cancer <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Chromatin deregulation is an emerging theme in cancer pathogenesis, and bladder cancer stands out among many other cancer types with frequent mutations of genes involved in epigenetic regulation. Defects in chromatin-level regulation can be manifested at multiple levels such as changes in DNA methylation, histone methylation patterns, and non-coding RNAs. Chromatin modifiers mutated in bladder cancer, such as <em>KDM6A</em>,&nbsp;<em>KMT2D</em>,&nbsp;<em>KMT2C</em>,&nbsp;<em>ARID1A</em>,&nbsp;<em>EP300</em>, have been studied in bladder cell line models. Also, there are studies that mapped the active regulatory landscape of bladder cancer and histone modification profiles. Collectively, existing literature emphasizes the importance of a thorough understanding of epigenetic deregulation in bladder cancer. The epigenetic signatures of bladder cancer can be targeted via epigenetic drugs or other genome editing tools, ultimately bringing specific treatment options for this cancer. This chapter provides an overview of the epigenetic modifications in bladder cancer, and the potential of epidrugs for the treatment of bladder cancer.&nbsp;</p> Burcu Akman, PHD, Serap Erkek Özhan, PHD Copyright (c) 2022 The authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/epigenetics-bladder-cancer Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 The Etiology of Renal Cell Carcinoma and Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/etiology-of-renal-cell-carcinoma <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Renal cell carcinoma accounts for most malignant renal cancers, with clear cell as the most common subtype. Nowadays, the typical presentation of loin pain, frank hematuria, and palpable mass of renal cell carcinoma are seen less frequently. The advancements in medical imaging, in particular abdominal imaging, have significantly increased the number of small renal masses detected incidentally. Urothelium lining of upper urinary tract starts from the calyces and run the entire length of the ureter till the vesico-ureteric junction. Urothelial carcinoma is the malignancy of this urothelium tract. Established risk factors for renal cell carcinoma, and to some extent to upper tract urothelial carcinoma, include male gender, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and end stage renal diseases. This chapter provides an overview of the etiology of renal cell carcinoma and upper tract urothelial carcinoma.</p> Keng Ng, MBBS, PHD, FRCS Copyright (c) 2022 Keng Ng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/etiology-of-renal-cell-carcinoma Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 MetastamiRs in Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Overview of MicroRNA Implicated in Metastatic Kidney Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/microrna-renal-cell-carcinoma <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional protein expression. Aberrant microRNA expression has been widely implicated in cancer biology with various effects depending on the affected downstream target(s). In renal cell carcinoma, microRNAs have been shown to influence metastasis by targeting oncogenes or tumor suppressors in complex regulatory networks­­ - leading them to be coined “metastamiRs.” This chapter aims to identify the microRNAs responsible for metastasis in renal cell carcinoma, review their molecular function and oncologic outcome, and discuss their potential roles for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.</p> Jonathan Xu, MD, Aaron Perecman, MD, Adam Wiggins, MD, Thomas Kalantzakos, BA, Sanjna Das, BS, Travis Sullivan, MS, Kimberly Rieger-Christ, PHD Copyright (c) 2022 The authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/microrna-renal-cell-carcinoma Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 New trends in robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/robotic-retroperitoneal-partial-nephrectomy <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Robotic technology and new surgical adjuncts are continually evolving to aid the operating surgeon and improve patient outcomes. Retroperitoneal access in renal surgery has clear benefits over traditional transperitoneal surgery with robotics augmenting the surgeon’s ability to operate in this anatomically confined space. Traditionally, the retroperitoneal approach was reserved for patients with posterior or laterally located tumors, or in patients with hostile abdomens; however, more streamlined surgical robots, improvements in port placement and increased utilization of the retroperitoneal approach has meant that the vast majority of small renal masses can be safely accessed via the retroperitoneum. This chapter aims to explore this paradigm shift further, while also exploring the use of added technologies and variations in surgical techniques.</p> Mitchell Barns, MD, Sarah O'Neill, MBBS, FRACS, Neil Barber, MBBS, FRCS Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/robotic-retroperitoneal-partial-nephrectomy Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 The Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/epidemiology-of-testicular-cancer <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Testicular cancer is the most common neoplasm among young men aged 15-40 years. Overall, it is a rare malignancy and represents about 1% of the adult neoplasms and 5% of urological tumors. In 2020, the International Agency for Research of Cancer (IARC) recorded 74,458 new cases worldwide. Incidences vary greatly across the globe, ranging from 3 to 12 new cases per 100,000 males/per year in Western societies. In contrast, figures are very low in Asian and African countries. European White men seems to be more affected overall, independently of the country of residence and migration compared to other ethnicities. Incidence is increasing worldwide, and some countries, such as Slovenia and the Netherlands, registered a doubling of testicular cancer cases in the last two decades. Reasons are still unclear. Cryptorchidism (undescended testis), which increases the chances of developing testicular cancer by 3.7–7.5 times compared to the general male population, is the only risk factor unanimously recognized.&nbsp; Despite the increase in incidence, testicular cancer remains a relatively indolent disease with mortality figures substantially unchanged for over three decades.</p> Simone Giona, MD Copyright (c) 2022 The Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/epidemiology-of-testicular-cancer Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Organ Sparing Surgery in Testicular Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/organ-sparing-surgery-testicular-cancer <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Testicular cancer is the most common cancer amongst young adult men. The gold standard of treatment for a testicular tumor is a radical orchidectomy, where the testis and spermatic cord are removed, however up to 50% of testicular pathology is benign and these patients are being overtreated. Organ-sparing surgery can be an alternative for patients with small, indeterminate testicular lesions and normal tumor markers. It can also be considered as an option for patients with tumors in a solitary testis, or where bilateral tumors are present. Combined with frozen section examination, tumors can safely be removed, and any residual disease identified intraoperatively. Organ-sparing surgery has safe oncological outcomes, with low recurrence rates on follow up data. It also provides a beneficial effect on the fertility and the hormonal profile of these patients. As these patients have a &gt;95% survival rate, providing a high quality of life should be prioritized.</p> Lily Whitehurst, MBBCH, MRCS, Andrew Chetwood, MBCHB, FRCS Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/organ-sparing-surgery-testicular-cancer Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 The Epidemiology of Penile Cancer https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/epidemiology-of-penile-cancer <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Penile cancer is an uncommon type of malignancy. In 2020, globally, 36068 new cases were diagnosed according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The majority (over 95%) of penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. Penile cancer generally affects men from low socio-economic groups with poor hygienic standards. The highest figures have been recorded in countries such as South America, Africa, and India. Human papilloma virus (HPV16-18) infection, phimosis, and smoking have been found to be the strongest risk factors for penile cancer, and they can significantly increase its incidence. &nbsp;Penile cancer usually affects patients late in life, with the highest incidence recorded in the &gt;60-year age group.</p> Simone Giona, MD Copyright (c) 2022 The Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/epidemiology-of-penile-cancer Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Biopsy Approaches https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-biopsy-approaches <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Prostate cancer is a common and increasing malignancy in men. Tissue is generally obtained using prostate biopsy for diagnosis and risk stratification. There are many prostate biopsy techniques. Historically, the transrectal approach has been the most adopted. In many centers, however, there has a been a shift towards transperineal prostate biopsies, increasingly performed under local anesthetic. The transperineal approach has proven advantages, including better sampling of the anterior area of the prostate and lower infection rates. Biopsies are typically performed using a combination of a systematic and targeted approach. Targeting of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging can be performed cognitively, assisted by a fused imaging approach with the transrectal ultrasound, or directly within the magnetic resonance imaging scanner. There are several novel developments in the field, which include robotic techniques to guide biopsy needles based on fusion images or directly targeting lesions robotically during in-bore magnetic resonance imaging.</p> Paul Gravestock, BMBS, MPhys, MRCS, Shaw Matthew, MA, BM BCh, MD, FRCS, Rajan Veeratterapillay, MBBS, FRCS, Rakesh Heer, BMBS, FRCS, PhD Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-biopsy-approaches Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Prostate Cancer: Advances in Radiation Oncology, Molecular Biology, and Future Treatment Strategies https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-radiation-oncology <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Prostate cancer remains an important health problem worldwide affecting one in every six men including members of vulnerable communities. Although successful treatments have been delivered to men affected with the disease resulting in improved patient outcome, process improvements including therapy titration and augmentation are needed to optimize tumor control and limit normal tissue injury from therapy. In this chapter, we describe current management strategies for optimal patient care with radiation therapy and opportunities for improvement of care moving forward with applied science to apply therapy in a strategic manner, potentially improving care and outcome for patients treated for this disease.</p> Tao Wang, PHD, Brian Lewis, PHD, Marcus Ruscetti, PHD, Kriti Mittal, MD, MS, Ming-Jin Wang, DO, Mitchell Sokoloff, MD, Linda Ding, PHD, Maryann Bishop-Jodoin, MED, Thomas J. FitzGerald, MD Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-radiation-oncology Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Improving Prostate Cancer Care through Quality Assurance Programs https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-care-quality-assurance <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Continuous quality assurance assessment and control in healthcare is essential to provide patients with the best possible care. Quality assurance programs have been developed to improve future healthcare by thoroughly studying patient outcomes on a physician- or institutional-level. Through the continuous and cyclical process of data registration, evaluation and adaptation, opportunities are sought to improve (individual) patient outcomes. Over the past decade, quality assurance programs have been initiated within urological clinical practice, mainly focusing on the diagnosis and surgical treatment of prostate cancer. While they all share the same philosophy to improve healthcare, existing quality assurance programs differ greatly. To date, little is known about their effects on the outcomes of prostate cancer care. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge regarding quality assurance program within prostate cancer care. We provide insights into how quality Assurance programs can improve and assure future diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.</p> Hans Veerman, MD, Marais Hagens, MD, André Vis, MD, PHD, Jeroen van Moorselaar, MD, PHD, Pim van Leeuwen, MD, PHD, Michel Wouters, MD, PHD, Henk van der Poel, MD, PHD Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-care-quality-assurance Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 The Role of Family History and Germline Genetics in Prostate Cancer Disease Profile and Screening https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-family-history-genetics <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Established risk factors for prostate cancer include age, ethnicity, a family history of prostate cancer or carrying a pathogenic germline variation in a prostate cancer predisposition gene. Approximately 10-15% of men with advanced prostate cancer have a germline genetic predisposition to the disease (i.e., <em>BRCA2</em>). &nbsp;&nbsp;Whilst the largest, and most well-known prostate cancer screening studies (i.e., ERSPC) have focused on the use of prostate-specific antigen as a screening tool, the incorporation of tissue and liquid genomic biomarkers alongside modern imaging modalities are being designed to individualize and improve the accuracy of both the screening and diagnostic pathway. &nbsp;The use of a polygenic risk scoring can now also offer a man his personalized prostate cancer risk based on a number of low-risk, common genetic variants and is currently the subject of ongoing research. The mainstreaming of genomics into the prostate cancer screening, diagnostic and treatment pathway will soon become embedded into routine clinical practice. This chapter aims to summarize current knowledge on the topic of men who harbor a genetic predisposition to prostate cancer, how this predisposition arises, its stratification into low-risk common variants vs. high-risk, rare variants, and its impact and incorporation into screening and diagnostic algorithms. The importance of germline genetics beyond screening and diagnostics, its role in the identification of lethal prostate cancer, and in the selection of targeted treatments for advanced disease is also discussed.</p> Holly Ni Raghallaigh MBChB, MD, FRCS, Simon RJ Bott, MD, FRCS, FEBU Copyright (c) 2022 The Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/prostate-cancer-family-history-genetics Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 Index https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.index Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers.index Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000 About the Editor https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers-editors <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/bchapter/neil-barber-200.jpg" alt="Neil Barber, MBBS, FRCS" width="200" height="242"></p> <p>Neil Barber, MBBS, FRCS is a Consultant Urological Surgeon at Frimley Park Hospital, Clinical Lead for Urology at Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, and Director of the Frimley Renal Cancer Centre. Dr. Barber Leads the tertiary referral center for renal cancer surgery at Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, UK. He also created a very successful Royal College of Surgeons of England certified fellowship program to train urologists on all renal surgeries including robotic and minimally invasive renal surgery. Dr. Barber provides the full breadth of Urological care, including issues ranging from prostate cancer, urinary tract infections, prostatitis, and penoscrotal conditions. Dr. Barber is recognized as a Key Opinion Leader and clinical advisor both to industry and to NICE.</p> <p><strong>Ahmed Ali, MBChB, MSC, FRCS</strong><br>Frimley Park Hospital, Frimley Health NHS Foundation Trust, Camberley, UK</p> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/bchapter/ahmed-ali-200.jpg" alt="Ahmed Ali, MBChB, MSC, FRCS" width="200" height="249"></p> <p>Ahmed Ali, MBChB, MSc, FRCS is a Consultant Urological Surgeon at Frimley Health Foundation NHS Trust, UK. Dr. Ali leads the bladder cancer services and is a core member of the Urology Department at Frimley Park Hospital. After receiving Master’s degree in Urology from University College of London in 2013, Dr. Ali continued to gain his expertise in managing urologic oncology while undertaking a fellowship post at Addenbrookes hospital in Cambridge. Recently, Dr. Ali introduced multiple new treatments for bladder cancer at Frimley Health such as En-bloc resection of a bladder tumor, Transurethral laser ablation/resection of bladder tumor, and hyperthermic mitomycin treatment for BCG failure patients. Dr. Ali is currently involved in NIHR-funded trial to investigate the role of novel markers in overactive bladder syndrome.</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/urologic-cancers-editors Mon, 12 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +1000