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See <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/researcher-institutions"><strong>here</strong></a> for the full list. <img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/blank-20.png" alt="" width="20" height="20"></p> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/figures-300dpi-600.png" alt="Open access books authors of Exon Publications" width="600" height="1576"></p> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/blank-10.png" alt="" width="10" height="10"></p> <p>Open access books published by Exon Publications are edited by experts in the field. See <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/about/editorialTeam"><strong>here</strong></a> for more details.</p> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/blank-10.png" alt="" width="10" height="10"></p> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/cmorais/blank-20.png" alt="" width="20" height="20"></p> <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/bchapter/editors.png" alt="Open access books editors of Exon Publications" width="600" height="596"></p> https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-front-matter Front Matter 2022-08-06T21:16:21+10:00 BREAST CANCER books@exonpublications.com Harvey N. Mayrovitz, PHD (Editor) books@exonpublications.com 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-foreword Foreword 2022-08-06T21:20:07+10:00 R. Daniel Bonfil, PHD mayrovit@nova.edu <p>Despite remarkable advances in our understanding of the biology of breast cancer and better therapeutic options available in the last decades, this malignant neoplasia continues to be of major public health concern around the globe. In 2020, 2.3 million females were diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide, with an incidence and related mortality that continue to grow globally. However, trends and patterns vary in different countries as a result of differences in risk factors, screening strategies, and access to newer therapies, among others. In the last decades, many immunohistochemical markers (e.g., ER, PR, HER2, proliferation maker Ki-67), genomic markers (e.g., BRCA1, BRCA2), and immunologic markers (e.g., immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-L1, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes) have been identified as molecular hallmarks of breast cancer, which are currently used to stratify patients more accurately and provide them with a range of treatment options, including novel targeted therapies. In this book, a wide spectrum of topics that comprise clinically and biologically relevant aspects of breast cancer is covered. The first chapters provide an up-to-date overview of epidemiological and etiological aspects of the disease, and a concise pathologic description of the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Innovations and specialized techniques in surgery, which plays a primary role in the treatment of breast cancer, are then outlined, as well as non-invasive methods used to assess lymphedema, a side effect seen in some patients after surgical or radiation treatment. <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-foreword/1046">CONTINUE READING…..</a></p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Harvey Mayrovitz https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-preface Preface 2022-08-06T21:24:51+10:00 Harvey N. Mayrovitz, PHD mayrovit@nova.edu <p>This book provides a unique blend of carefully presented and structured information covering a broad array of relevant breast cancer related issues. The first eight chapters cover breast cancer epidemiology, etiology, breast cancer subtypes, cur-rent and emerging surgical innovations to treat and image breast cancer, a description of noninvasive lymphedema assessment methods to detect and track this important treatment complication and the potential role of platelets and galectins in breast cancer metastasis. The last five chapters are devoted to the description of forward-looking albeit potential breast cancer treatment possibilities. Breast cancer has become the most diagnosed cancer globally, surpassing lung and prostate cancers. Part of this increase may be attributed to improved detection but may also be due to changes in female fertility patterns along with lifestyle changes. Although developed countries have the highest incidence of breast cancer the mortality rates vary widely from global region to region but are highest in socio-economically low areas. However even in developed countries, there appears to be a disproportionately higher mortality rate among black women than white. Chapter 1 delves deeply into these and other issues from a global perspective. The etiology of breast cancer is attributed to a complex interaction between various modifiable and non-modifiable factors that is determined by genetics, environmental, nutritional, hormonal, and heritable elements. Risk factors include prior history of breast cancer, positive family history, obesity, tall stature, smoking, alcohol consumption, early menarche, late menopause,&nbsp; <a href="https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-preface/1047">CONTINUE READING…..</a></p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Harvey Mayrovitz https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-contributors Contributors 2022-08-06T21:26:48+10:00 List of Contributors books@exonpublications.com <p><strong>ANASTASIA L. BERG, PHD</strong><br>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA</p> <p><strong>ANGELES C. TECALCO-CRUZ, PHD</strong><br>Posgrado en Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México (UACM), CDMX, Mexico City, México</p> <p><strong>ASHLEY ROWSON-HODEL, PHD</strong><br>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA</p> <p><strong>CÉSAR LÓPEZ-CAMARILLO, PHD</strong><br>Posgrado en Ciencias Genómicas, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, CDMX, México</p> <p><strong>CLAUDIA ADMOUN, BS</strong><br>Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, FL, USA</p> <p><strong>CLAUDIA ADRIANA RAMÍREZ VALDESPINO, PHD</strong><br>Departamento de Medio Ambiente y Energía, Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Chihuahua, Chih., México</p> <p><strong>DANIEL WEINGRAD, MD</strong><br>Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA</p> <p><strong>DEDY HERMANSYAH, PHD</strong><br>Division of Oncologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia</p> <p><strong>ERASMO ORRANTIA-BORUNDA, PHD</strong><br>Departamento de Medio Ambiente y Energía, Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México</p> <p><strong>EVELINA ARZANOVA, MS</strong><br>Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Osteopathic Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, FL, USA</p> <p><strong>FRANCISCO OCTAVIO GÓMEZ-VALLES, MD</strong><br>Calle 19va, 908. Col. Santo Niño 31200, Chihuahua, Mexico</p> <p><strong>HARVEY N. MAYROVITZ, PHD</strong><br>Department of Medical Education, Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, FL, USA</p> <p><strong>HELENA SOLLEIRO-VILLAVICENCIO, PHD</strong><br>Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), CDMX, Mexico City, México</p> <p><strong>JAYALAKSHMI SRIDHAR, PHD</strong><br>Department of Chemistry, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana, USA</p> <p><strong>JESSICA CRYSTAL, MD</strong><br>Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA</p> <p><strong>JESSIE J. GRAZIER, BS</strong><br>College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USA</p> <p><strong>JESÚS ZEPEDA-CERVANTES, PHD</strong><br>Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), CDMX, Mexico City, México</p> <p><strong>JOSUÉ O. RAMÍREZ-JARQUÍN, PHD</strong><br>Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), CDMX, Mexico City, México</p> <p><strong>JOSUÉ ORLANDO RAMÍREZ-JARQUÍN, PHD</strong><br>Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMX, México</p> <p><strong>JUAN MELLA-CATINCHI, MD</strong><br>Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA</p> <p><strong>KERMIT L. CARRAWAY III, PHD</strong><br>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA</p> <p><strong>KYLE XU, MD</strong><br>Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, USA</p> <p><strong>LUCERO EVELIA ACUÑA AGUILAR, MSC</strong><br>Departamento de Medio Ambiente y Energía, Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México</p> <p><strong>MADELYN R. WHEELER, PHD</strong><br>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA</p> <p><strong>MARCELA SOSA-GARROCHO, PHD</strong><br>Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMX, México</p> <p><strong>MARÍA JAZMÍN ABRAHAM-JUÁREZ, PHD</strong><br>Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para la Biodiversidad (LANGEBIO), Unidad de Genómica Avanzada, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Irapuato, Gto, México</p> <p><strong>MARINA MACÍAS-SILVA, PHD</strong><br>Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CDMX, México</p> <p><strong>MICHELLE HU, BS</strong><br>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA</p> <p><strong>NAUFAL NANDITA FIRSTY, MD</strong><br>Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia</p> <p><strong>PATRICIA ANCHONDO-NUÑEZ, DR.</strong><br>Departamento de Patología, Hospital General Dr. Salvador Zubirán Anchondo. Av. Prolongación Teófilo Borunda 510, El Bajo, Chihuahua, Chih., México</p> <p><strong>PAUL W. SYLVESTER, PHD</strong><br>College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USA</p> <p><strong>RAJESH KOMATI, PHD</strong><br>Department of Chemistry, Nicholls State University, Louisiana, USA</p> <p><strong>SATYENDRA KUMAR, MD, PHD</strong><br>Department of Chemistry, Xavier University of Louisiana, Louisiana, USA</p> <p><strong>SAVANNAH R. FREE, BS</strong><br>Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, and UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-epidemiology The Epidemiology of Breast Cancer 2022-08-06T13:47:54+10:00 Evelina Arzanova, MS eveya366@gmail.com Harvey N. Mayrovitz, PHD mayrovit@nova.edu <p style="margin-bottom: 0in;"><strong><span lang="EN-AU" style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica',sans-serif; color: #333333; background: white;">ABSTRACT</span></strong></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0in;"><span lang="EN-AU" style="font-size: 10.5pt; font-family: 'Helvetica',sans-serif; color: #333333; background: white;">As of 2020, breast cancer has become the most diagnosed cancer globally, overtaking lung and prostate cancers<strong><span style="font-family: 'Helvetica',sans-serif;">.&nbsp;</span></strong>Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally with cases expected to reach 364,000 in the year 2040. Part of this increase may be attributed to improved detection but some, especially in lower developed countries, may be due to changes in female fertility patterns along with lifestyle changes. Developed countries have the highest incidence of breast cancer. Mortality rates vary widely from global region to region but are highest in socio-economically low areas, reflecting a lack of access to early screening and timely treatment. Even in developed countries, the disproportionately high mortality rate among black women and white women further underscores existing health inequality. This chapter aims to provide a global epidemiological overview of breast cancer incidence and mortality.</span></p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Evelina Arzanova, MS, Harvey Mayrovitz, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-etiology The Etiology of Breast Cancer 2022-08-06T13:47:54+10:00 Claudia Admoun, BS ca1424@mynsu.nova.edu Harvey N. Mayrovitz, PHD mayrovit@nova.edu <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The etiology of breast cancer is attributed to a complex interaction between various modifiable and non-modifiable factors. This etiology is determined by genetics, environmental, nutritional, hormonal, and heritable elements that contribute to the development of this disease. Risk factors include prior history of breast cancer, positive family history, obesity, tall stature, smoking, alcohol consumption, early menarche, late menopause, sedentary lifestyle, nulliparity and hormone replacement therapy. Factors associated with decreased risk of breast cancer include multiparity, history of breastfeeding, physical activity, weight loss, and prophylactic surgical and medical interventions. &nbsp;In the United States, approximately one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. This disease is more common in white, post-menopausal females. Risk increases with older age with about 80% of breast cancer patients being older than 50 years. Analyzing the etiology of breast cancer allows for the development of improved screening and treatment interventions. In this chapter, the etiology of breast cancer along with the risk factors associated with this disease are discussed.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Claudia Admoun, BS, Harvey Mayrovitz, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-subtypes Subtypes of Breast Cancer 2022-08-13T23:14:42+10:00 Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda, PHD erasmo.orrantia@cimav.edu.mx Patricia Anchondo-Nuñez, Dr. books@exonpublications.com Lucero Evelia Acuña-Aguilar, MSC books@exonpublications.com Francisco Octavio Gómez-Valles, MD books@exonpublications.com Claudia Adriana Ramírez Valdespino, PHD claudia.ramirez@cimav.edu.mx <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Breast cancer is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease with multiple subtypes. The classification of these subtypes has evolved over the years. The most common and widely accepted classification of breast cancer is from an immunohistochemical perspective, based on the expression of the following hormone receptors: estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor (HER2). Accordingly, the following four subtypes of breast cancer are widely recognized: luminal A, luminal B, HER2-positive, and triple negative. With the recent advances in cancer research, and an increased molecular understanding of breast cancer, the current clinical model for classification of breast cancer may be benefit from the addition of several molecular markers such as miRNAs (let-7, miR-155, miR-150, miR-153) and mutations (p53, BRCA 1 and 2 genes). &nbsp;This chapter provides an overview of the characteristics of these four subtypes of breast cancer.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda, PHD, Patricia Anchondo-Nuñez, Dr., Lucero Evelia Acuña-Aguilar, MSC, Francisco Octavio Gómez-Valles, MD, Claudia Adriana Ramírez Valdespino, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-surgical-innovation Current Surgical Innovations in the Treatment of Breast Cancer 2022-08-06T13:47:56+10:00 Jessica Crystal, MD jessica.crystal@med.miami.edu Juan Mella-Catinchi, MD jrmella@med.miami.edu Kyle Xu, MD kxu.md@med.miami.edu Daniel Weingrad, MD d.weingrad@med.miami.edu <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Surgery is an essential component in the management of treatable breast cancer. With the use of standardized staging and data collection, evidence-based management of breast cancer has evolved to limit treatments to what is necessary but sufficient to allow tissue preservation and control of treatment-specific morbidity. As more tumors are discovered by pretreatment imaging and are not identifiable on physical exam, intraoperative tumor localization techniques have become increasingly sophisticated and reliable.&nbsp; Techniques for localization of “sentinel” nodes has become increasingly accurate and technically less complicated.&nbsp;&nbsp; Surgical treatment may occur after pretreatment with systemic agents (neoadjuvant) or a part of reconstruction (oncoplastic resection). Post-surgical morbidity has become an increasing focus of concern as more patients survive breast cancer with modern therapy. Cosmetic deformity is a significant cause of distress in many patients and attributed to causing delay in seeking treatment and contributing to postoperative depression. Reconstruction with autologous tissue or prosthetic implants is offered with increasingly improved results and patient satisfaction. This chapter provides an overview of the current surgical innovations in the treatment of breast cancer. Specialized techniques employed in the surgical management of breast cancer in our practice are also discussed.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jessica Crystal, MD, Juan Mella-Catinchi, MD, Kyle Xu, MD, Daniel Weingrad, MD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-lymphedema Measuring Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema 2022-08-06T13:47:56+10:00 Harvey N. Mayrovitz, PHD mayrovit@nova.edu <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) presents as swelling in the arm, hand, trunk, or breast at varying times after completion of breast cancer treatment. The reported incidence of BCRL varies widely in part due to its dependence on the type and extent of the treatment, pre-treatment risk factors, and the criteria used to define its presence. Central to this issue are the various quantitative measures that are used to specify lymphedema thresholds for its detection and tracking over time and during treatment. The goal of this chapter is to discuss these issues and the methods available for the non-invasive quantitative assessment of BCRL. Operational principles, advantages and limitations of the various methods, their clinical history of use, and effectiveness are discussed. Covered methods include those used to assess and monitor lymphedema-related changes in tissue water at any anatomical site and also methods used to assess changes only in limbs.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Harvey N. Mayrovitz, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-breast-imaging The Role of Breast Imaging in Pre- and Post-Definitive Treatment of Breast Cancer 2022-08-06T13:47:57+10:00 Dedy Hermansyah, PHD dedi.hermansyah@usu.ac.id Naufal Nandita Firsty, MD acnaufal06@gmail.com <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Breast imaging is an integral part of breast cancer management. Many imaging modalities are available in assisting clinicians in the screening and detection of breast cancer.&nbsp; These can be broadly grouped under three categories: X-ray-based breast imaging, magnetic-field-based breast imaging, and ultrasound wave-based breast imaging.&nbsp; Mammography is the most used X ray-based breast imaging. This chapter provides an overview of various imaging modalities with emphasis on mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. Their uses in pre-and post-treatment settings, along with their advantages and disadvantages are presented from an Indonesian perspective.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dedy Hermansyah, PHD, Naufal Nandita Firsty, MD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-platelets Platelets in Hematogenous Breast Cancer Metastasis: Partners in Crime 2022-08-06T13:47:57+10:00 Savannah R. Free, BS books@exonpublications.com Kermit L. Carraway III, PHD klcarraway@ucdavis.edu <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Distant metastasis is the primary driver of breast cancer-associated mortality, and research into the mechanisms underlying hematogenous tumor cell dissemination could give rise to the development of novel and more effective therapeutic agents and strategies. Platelets are activated directly by tumor cell interaction and indirectly by tumor-secreted factors to trigger platelet aggregation, degranulation, and the subsequent release of pro-tumorigenic factors. Platelet presence within the primary tumor, bloodstream, and metastatic sites allows for continuous exposure of breast cancer cells to these factors, making platelets a powerful partner in tumor cell dissemination. Platelet-tumor cell crosstalk contributes to hematogenous breast cancer metastasis by providing physical and biochemical support to metastasizing cells via mechanisms including protection from shear forces, anoikis, and immune attack, and enhancement of angiogenesis, migration, and pro-tumorigenic inflammation. Here, we review platelets and their many benefits to metastatic breast cancer, their role in facilitating paraneoplastic thrombosis, and current research regarding their potential as a breast cancer therapeutic target.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Savannah R. Free, Kermit L. Carraway III, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-galectins Role of Galectins in Metastatic Breast Cancer 2022-08-06T13:47:57+10:00 Jessie J. Grazier, BS graziejj@warhawks.ulm.edu Paul W. Sylvester, PHD sylvester@ulm.edu <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Galectins play a role in mammary morphogenesis and are expressed in all breast cancer subtypes. Galectins bind with glycoconjugates, as well as carbohydrate-independent targets in both the cytosolic and nuclear subcellular fractions. All tissues express galectins and galectins bind to numerous targets localized in different subcellular domains, including cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, and extracellular matrix. Galectin-3 and galectin-1 are associated with breast cancer progression and metastasis and will be the focus of this chapter. The chapter highlights mechanisms involved in galectins’ role in modulating metastatic breast cancer phenotype. Immunocytochemistry analysis of galectin-3 in human breast cancer cells is used to illustrate galectin expression in the metastatic phenotype.&nbsp;</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jessie J. Grazier, BS, Paul W. Sylvester, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-usp18 Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 18: a Multifaceted Protein Participating in Breast Cancer 2022-08-06T13:47:58+10:00 Angeles C. Tecalco-Cruz, PHD angeles.tecalco@uacm.edu.mx Josué O. Ramírez-Jarquín, PHD books@exonpublications.com Jesús Zepeda-Cervantes, PHD books@exonpublications.com Helena Solleiro-Villavicencio, PHD books@exonpublications.com María Jazmín Abraham-Juárez, PHD books@exonpublications.com <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Mammary tumors display high molecular heterogeneity with regards to their transcriptomes and proteomes. The regulation of several posttranslational modifications, such as ubiquitination and ISGylation, directly influences the proteome of breast cancer cells. In particular, ISGylation is emerging as a critical factor in different cancer types and is particularly relevant in breast cancer. This modification involves the covalent binding of interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) to its target proteins. Interestingly, ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18), also called UBP43, reverses ISGylation. In addition to its activity as a de-ISGylation enzyme, USP18 is also a negative regulator of type I IFN signaling. Several studies indicate a central role of USP18 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. This chapter discusses recent insights gained in the molecular mechanisms of USP18 in breast cancer, and its potential implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this disease.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Angeles C. Tecalco-Cruz, PHD, Josué O. Ramírez-Jarquín, PHD, Jesús Zepeda-Cervantes, PHD, Helena Solleiro-Villavicencio, PHD, María Jazmín Abraham-Juárez, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-nanomaterials Nanomaterials for Breast Cancer 2022-08-06T13:47:58+10:00 Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda, PHD erasmo.orrantia@cimav.edu.mx Lucero Evelia Acuña Aguilar, MSC lucero.acuna@cimav.edu.mx Claudia Adriana Ramírez Valdespino, PHD claudia.ramirez@cimav.edu.mx <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Breast cancer represents 16% of all malignant tumors diagnosed and is the leading cause of mortality in women worldwide. While significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer have been made over the years, the management of advanced stages of the disease and treatment-related adverse events continue to be a challenge. There is a need to develop tools for target-specific delivery of drugs to improve efficiency and decrease non-specific drug-induced toxicity. The field of nanotechnology has undergone a rapid revolution and nanostructures of carbon have produced some promising results in the treatment of breast cancer, at least in experimental settings. This chapter provides an overview of the emerging role of carbon nanomaterials for the treatment of breast cancer with emphasis on graphene, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nano diamonds, and carbon dots. The promises and challenges are also discussed.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Erasmo Orrantia-Borunda, PHD, Lucero Evelia Acuña Aguilar, MSC, Claudia Adriana Ramírez Valdespino, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-rps6k1 Targeting RPS6K1 for Refractory Breast Cancer Therapy 2022-08-06T13:47:59+10:00 Jayalakshmi Sridhar, PHD jsridhar@xula.edu Rajesh Komati, PHD rajesh.komati@nicholls.edu Satyendra Kumar, MD, PHD skumar1@xula.edu <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>In 2020, female breast cancer overtook lung cancer to become the most diagnosed cancer worldwide. Nearly 30% of women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer have recurrent disease with resistance to therapeutics evidenced in 25% of cases. The hormone receptor positive (ER+ and PR+) and HER2+ breast cancers quickly develop resistance to the frontline therapeutics, namely, endocrine therapy and trastuzumab treatment. The overactivity of the PI3K/mTOR/S6K1 pathway has been shown to lead to multidrug resistant breast cancer. While PI3K and mTOR targeted therapeutics have shown promise, development of resistance and mutations in these proteins have limited the success of these agents. S6K1 kinase, a downstream effector whose activation leads to translation of ribosomal proteins, enhancement of mRNA biogenesis, and cap-dependent translation and elongation, is a critical player in the PI3K/mTOR pathway and the ER+ pathway. Inhibiting the activity of S6K1 can provide the needed therapeutic option for resistant/refractory breast cancer patients.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Jayalakshmi Sridhar, PHD, Rajesh Komati, PHD, Satyendra Kumar, MD, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-protacs Novel Breast Cancer Treatment by Targeting Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Stability Using Proteolysis-Targeting Chimeras (PROTACs) Technology 2022-08-06T13:48:00+10:00 Angeles C. Tecalco-Cruz, PHD angeles.tecalco@uacm.edu.mx Josué Orlando Ramírez-Jarquín, PHD jjarquin@ifc.unam.mx Marina Macías-Silva, PHD mmaciass@ifc.unam.mx Marcela Sosa-Garrocho, PHD msosa@ifc.unam.mx César López-Camarillo, PHD cesar.lopez@uacm.edu.mx <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Approximately 70% of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor-alpha-positive (ERα+). The binding of estradiol to the ligand-binding domain activates ERα. ERα can also be activated via the phosphorylation induced by growth factors. Activated ERα functions as a transcriptional regulator with a pro-tumor activity in breast cancer cells. In recent years, it has been discovered that some proteins can stabilize ERα by inhibiting its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system through several mechanisms, including ERα monoubiquitination, deubiquitination, or phosphorylation, among others. Herein, we review the proteins associated with the inhibition of ERα degradation and discuss the role of proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) as promising therapeutic strategies for breast cancer by inducing ERα degradation. The knowledge of the multiple mechanisms that stabilize ERα protein may be central for the development of new PROTACs for novel breast cancer treatments.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Angeles C. Tecalco-Cruz, PHD, Josué Orlando Ramírez-Jarquín, PHD, Marina Macías-Silva, PHD, Marcela Sosa-Garrocho, PHD, César López-Camarillo, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-lysosome Engaging the Lysosome and Lysosome-Dependent Cell Death in Cancer 2022-08-06T13:48:00+10:00 Anastasia L. Berg, PHD anastasial.berg@gmail.com Ashley Rowson-Hodel, PHD arhodel@ucdavis.edu Madelyn R. Wheeler, MD mrkring@ucdavis.edu Michelle Hu, BS mghu@ucdavis.edu Savannah Free, BS srfree@ucdavis.edu Kermit L. Carraway III, PHD klcarraway@ucdavis.edu <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>While patient-specific targeting of cellular growth and viability pathways dominates current approaches in anti cancer therapeutics development, appreciation for the strategy of targeting transformation-dependent alterations in cellular organelle structure and function continues to grow. Here we discuss the lysosome as an anti-cancer target, highlighting its role as a key mediator of cell death. As the major degradative compartment of the cell, the lysosome houses dozens of destructive enzymes and is responsible for the breakdown of both internal and external molecules and particles; however, until relatively recently the contribution of the lysosome to cellular death mechanisms has been largely overlooked. Renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of lysosomal rupture to combat cancer has led to development of lysosome-disrupting agents that induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), cathepsin protease release, and subsequent lysosome dependent cell death (LDCD), now distinguished as a bona fide cell death process. Here, we present the basic biology, structure, and function of the lysosome, with particular emphasis on the transformation-associated alterations that sensitize cancer cell lysosomes to membrane rupture. We further describe the lysosome’s role in cell death and comprehensively outline emerging therapeutic strategies that exploit lysosomes for the treatment of a variety of malignancies.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Anastasia L. Berg, Ashley Rowson-Hodel, Madelyn R. Wheeler, Michelle Hu, Savannah Free, Kermit L. Carraway III, PHD https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-index Index 2022-08-06T21:44:05+10:00 Index books@exonpublications.com 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications https://exonpublications.com/index.php/exon/article/view/breast-cancer-editor About the Editor 2022-08-06T13:48:01+10:00 Harvey N. Mayrovitz, PHD (Editor) books@exonpublications.com <p><img src="https://exonpublications.com/public/site/images/bchapter/mayrovitz-for-publication-200.jpg" alt="Harvey N. Mayrovitz " width="200" height="158"></p> <p>Dr. Harvey N. Mayrovitz did his PhD graduate work at the University of Pennsylvania and trained at Temple University School of Medicine and the Graduate Hospital in Philadelphia and at the Medical Faculty and Hospital in Rotterdam and Delft University in the Netherlands. In 1998, after serving as the Director of Cardiovascular Research at the Miami Heart Research Institute in Miami Beach Florida, he joined Nova Southeastern University in Ft. Lauderdale Florida where he is now a professor of physiology in the Dr. Kiran C. Patel College of Allopathic Medicine in the Department of Medical Education. His teaching areas include cardiovascular and pulmonary physiology directed toward medical and graduate health-science students. His current research areas include cardiopulmonary, lymphedema, and mostly noninvasive clinical and biophysical studies for diagnosis and therapy. He has authored over 150 scientific publications in these and related areas along with multiple book chapters. He continues his research activities and student mentoring with the most current research focused on developing ways to assess and better understand processes associated with lymphedema detection, progression, and its treatment. He is also actively investigating the potential of various forms of electromagnetic energy to influence blood flow and other physiological parameters.</p> 2022-08-06T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Exon Publications