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Progressive accumulation of misfolded amyloid and tau protein in intracellular and extracellular spaces is the most crucial etiopathological feature of brain ischemia, synaptic damage, or neural communication impairment. Clinical data suggest that dietary intake of curcumin enhances neurogenesis and offers neuroprotection. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound with diverse and attractive biological properties. It may prevent aging-associated changes in cellular proteins, such as β-amyloid peptide and tau protein, that lead to protein insolubility and aggregation after ischemic brain damage. Therefore, curcumin seems to be a promising supplementary agent against neurodegeneration development after brain ischemia. The aim of this chapter is to highlight our current understanding of the neuroprotective role of curcumin in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The limitations and adverse events of curcumin are also presented.
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